What is the U.S. Citizenship Test and what does it cover?

What is the U.S. Citizenship Test and what does it cover?

1. Introduction

The U.S. Citizenship Test is a critical step in the naturalization process for individuals seeking to become United States citizens. This comprehensive exam assesses applicants’ knowledge of U.S. history, government, and civic values, as well as their ability to read, write, and speak English. The test ultimately determines whether applicants meet the criteria for U.S. citizenship. This article delves into the origins and evolution of the Citizenship Test and provides an overview of what it entails.

2. History of the U.S. Citizenship Test

Origins of the Test

The U.S. Citizenship Test traces its roots back to the Naturalization Act of 1906. Before this act, there were no standardized requirements for becoming a U.S. citizen, and naturalization processes varied greatly across states. The Naturalization Act introduced a uniform set of guidelines, which included a requirement for immigrants to demonstrate a basic understanding of the English language and knowledge of American government and history.

“The 1906 law also required that an applicant for naturalization show an understanding of the fundamentals of the history and principles of the U.S. government, as well as knowledge of local government."- U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)

Evolution and Updates Over Time

The test has undergone several changes since its inception in 1906. The most notable update was in 1986 when the Immigration Reform and Control Act mandated the development of a standardized test for all citizenship applicants. This led to the implementation of the current test format, consisting of the English language test and the civics test.

Further revisions were made in 2008 when the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) collaborated with a panel of experts in various fields, including history, government, and English as a second language, to update the civics test’s content and format.

“The goal of the redesign is to ensure that naturalization applicants have uniform, consistent testing experiences nationwide, and that the civics test can effectively assess whether applicants have a meaningful understanding of U.S. government and history.” - USCIS

The most recent update to the U.S. Citizenship Test occurred in 2020, with revisions primarily focusing on the questions in the civics test to further enhance the quality and accuracy of the content.


  1. USCIS - Early American Immigration Policies 
  2. USCIS - A Guide to Naturalization 
  3. USCIS - Citizenship Test - 2008 Version 
  4. USCIS - Updated Citizenship Test - 2020 Version 

3. Components of the U.S. Citizenship Test

The U.S. Citizenship Test consists of three main components: the Naturalization interviewEnglish language test (including reading and writing tests), and the Civics test. These components are designed to assess applicants’ knowledge of U.S. government, history, and the English language, as well as their eligibility for citizenship.

“The naturalization test has two components: an English and civics test.” - U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)

4. The Naturalization Interview

Purpose and Format

The Naturalization interview is a crucial part of the U.S. Citizenship Test, during which USCIS officers assess applicants’ eligibility for citizenship. The officer will:

  1. Verify the applicant’s identity and review the Application for Naturalization (Form N-400)
  2. Evaluate the applicant’s ability to speak, read, and write in English
  3. Test the applicant’s knowledge of U.S. history and government

The interview typically lasts for 20 to 30 minutes and is conducted in English.

Assessment of Eligibility for Citizenship

During the interview, the USCIS officer will review the applicant’s Form N-400 to confirm their eligibility for citizenship. Factors they’ll consider include:

  • Lawful permanent resident (green card holder) status
  • Continuous residence and physical presence in the U.S.
  • Good moral character
  • Attachment to the Constitution and support for the U.S. government
  • Basic understanding of U.S. history and government
  • English language proficiency

Overview of the Application for Naturalization (Form N-400)

Form N-400 is the main application form for U.S. citizenship through naturalization. The form requires applicants to provide personal information, as well as details on their background, employment history, and residence. Additionally, applicants must answer questions related to their eligibility, moral character, and willingness to uphold U.S. laws and values.

“Form N-400, Application for Naturalization, is an application to become a naturalized U.S. citizen.” - USCIS

The application form is a key component in determining an applicant’s eligibility for citizenship and serves as the basis for the Naturalization interview.


  1. USCIS - Study for the Test 
  2. USCIS - Naturalization Interview 
  3. USCIS - Citizenship Through Naturalization 
  4. USCIS - Form N-400 

5. English Language Test

The English Language Test is a vital component of the U.S. Citizenship Test, and it evaluates applicants’ ability to speak, read, and write English. It is divided into three separate sections: Speaking testReading test, and Writing test.

Speaking Test

  • How it is Conducted

The speaking test is conducted during the Naturalization interview. The USCIS officer will engage the applicant in conversation to assess their ability to understand and respond to spoken English.

“The English speaking test is an oral test to determine your ability to speak and understand English.” - USCIS

  • Key Components and Expectations

During the conversation, the USCIS officer will focus on the applicant’s ability to:

  1. Understand spoken English
  2. Respond to questions in English
  3. Maintain a basic conversation in English

The applicant should be able to demonstrate their understanding of the language and respond appropriately to the officer’s questions, following proper grammar and pronunciation to the best of their ability.

Reading Test

  • Test Format

The reading test requires applicants to read aloud one sentence out of three, chosen by the USCIS officer, to demonstrate their ability to read in English.

“To pass the reading test, you must read one out of three sentences correctly.” - USCIS

  • Types of Questions

The sentences are generally about U.S. history and government-related topics. For example, the officer may ask the applicant to read a sentence about the president, voting, or a historical event.

  • Resources for Preparation

USCIS provides a Reading Test Vocabulary List with words that may appear in the test. Applicants can use these words to practice reading aloud and improve their pronunciation.

Writing Test

  • Test Format

The writing test involves writing one sentence out of three, dictated by the USCIS officer, to demonstrate the applicant’s ability to write in English.

“To pass the writing test, you must write one out of three sentences correctly.” - USCIS

  • Types of Questions

Similar to the reading test, the dictated sentences will be related to U.S. history and government topics. For example, applicants may be asked to write about the president’s role, a U.S. holiday, or the Constitution.

  • Resources for Preparation

USCIS provides a Writing Test Vocabulary List with words that may appear in the writing test. Applicants can use these words to practice writing sentences and improve their grammar, spelling, and punctuation skills.


  1. USCIS - English Test 
  2. USCIS - Study materials for the English Test 
  3. USCIS - Reading Test Vocabulary List 
  4. USCIS - Writing Test Vocabulary List 

6. Civics Test

Overview and Purpose

The Civics Test is a vital component of the U.S. Citizenship Test, designed to evaluate applicants’ knowledge of U.S. history, government, and the nation’s fundamental principles. This test ensures that potential citizens possess a fundamental understanding of U.S. institutions and can actively participate in civic life.

“The purpose of the civics test is to ensure that applicants for naturalization have a basic understanding of U.S. history and government and an attachment to the principles of the U.S. Constitution.” - U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)

Test Format

The Civics Test consists of 20 questions, selected at random from a pool of 128 possible questions2. The USCIS officer will orally administer the test during the naturalization interview, and applicants must answer at least 12 questions correctly to pass.

“Applicants must answer at least 12 questions correctly to pass the 2020 version of the civics test.” - USCIS

Topics Covered

The civics test covers a wide range of topics, including3:

  • Principles of American democracy
  • System of government
  • Rights and responsibilities
  • American history
  • Symbols and holidays

Types of Questions

Questions in the test can be factual, conceptual, or application-based, asking about historical events, the U.S. Constitution, branches of government, rights of citizens, and national symbols and holidays.

“The questions cover important topics that are relevant to your ability to understand and participate fully in the civic life of this country.” - USCIS

Preparing for the Test

To prepare for the Civics Test, USCIS provides a comprehensive list of study materials, including:

  • The official list of 128 potential questions and answers
  • Flashcards covering each question
  • Online practice tests
  • Interactive practice tests and quizzes
  • Videos and resources on how to prepare for the civics test

7. Test Exceptions and Accommodations

Disability Accommodations

USCIS provides accommodations for applicants with disabilities in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). These accommodations can include:

  • Sign language interpreters
  • Extended time for the test
  • Off-site testing

To request accommodations, applicants should submit Form N-648, Medical Certification for Disability Exceptions, along with their Form N-400, Application for Naturalization.

Age-based Exemptions

Certain age and residency requirements can provide exemptions from the English language test or modify the civics test:

  • Applicants aged 50 or older with at least 20 years of permanent residency are exempt from the English language test and take a modified civics test in their native language.

  • Applicants aged 55 or older with at least 15 years of permanent residency are exempt from the English language test and take a modified civics test in their native language.

Other Exceptions and Accommodations

For applicants with physical or developmental disabilities or mental impairments that prohibit them from fulfilling the standard testing requirements, USCIS provides further exceptions and accommodations upon submission of Form N-648.


  1. USCIS - Citizenship for Spouses of U.S. Citizens 
  2. USCIS - 2020 Version of the Civics Test 
  3. USCIS - Civics Test Study Materials 
  4. USCIS - Study Materials for the Civics Test 
  5. USCIS - Website Accessibility 
  6. USCIS - Form N-648 
  7. USCIS - Exceptions and Accommodations 

8. Preparing for the U.S. Citizenship Test

Official Resources and Study Materials

The U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) provides a variety of official resources to help applicants prepare for the Citizenship Test. These resources include:

  1. Study materials for the English test and Civics test.
  2. Online practice tests such as the Civics Practice Test available on the USCIS website.
  3. The USCIS Citizenship Resource Center, which offers educational materials, multimedia learning tools, and study aids.

“USCIS provides a number of resources to help you prepare for the citizenship test, including study materials and practice tests.” - USCIS

Tips and Strategies

When preparing for the U.S. Citizenship Test, consider the following tips and strategies to maximize your chances of success:

  1. Familiarize yourself with the format and content of each test component.
  2. Make a study schedule and dedicate consistent, focused time to reviewing the material.
  3. Use official study materials and sample questions provided by USCIS.
  4. Take practice tests to identify areas needing improvement and track your progress.
  5. Engage in conversational English to improve your speaking skills.
  6. Join a study group or find a study partner for mutual support, motivation, and practice.
  7. Stay informed about current events and U.S. government activities.

Supplemental Resources for Language and Civics Learning

In addition to official resources, explore supplementary materials to reinforce your learning and further develop your English language and civics knowledge:

  1. ESL (English as a Second Language) courses and resources, such as those offered by local community colleges, adult education centers, or online platforms.
  2. Library resources, including study guides, workbooks, and English language learning materials.
  3. Mobile apps, such as the USCIS Civics Test Study Tools App and other English language learning apps.
  4. Websites, podcasts, and YouTube channels dedicated to U.S. history, government, and citizenship topics.

9. Taking the Test

Application Process

To take the U.S. Citizenship Test, applicants must first submit Form N-400, the Application for Naturalization. After USCIS has reviewed the application and confirms the applicant meets the eligibility requirements, they will be scheduled for the Naturalization interview, which includes the Citizenship Test.

Test Location and Scheduling

The Citizenship Test is administered at USCIS field offices across the United States. Applicants will be notified of their appointment time and location in writing.

“You will receive an appointment letter in the mail telling you when and where you must go for your naturalization interview.” - USCIS

What to Expect on Test Day

When attending the Naturalization interview and taking the Citizenship Test, note the following guidelines to ensure a smooth experience:

  1. Bring the appointment letter, identification documents, and any additional supporting materials as required by USCIS.
  2. Arrive at the specified location early to allow time for security screening and check-in procedures.
  3. Expect the interview process, including the English language and Civics tests, to take approximately 20 to 30 minutes.
  4. Be prepared to speak, read, and write in English, as well as answer questions about your background, eligibility, and understanding of U.S. history and government.

Following the test, USCIS officers will notify applicants of their results and provide further instructions for the next steps in the naturalization process.


  1. USCIS - Find Study Materials and Resources 
  2. USCIS - Civics Practice Test 
  3. USCIS - Citizenship Resource Center 
  4. USCIS - Preparing for the Test 
  5. USCIS - USCIS Civics Test Study Tools App 
  6. USCIS - Form N-400, Application for Naturalization 
  7. USCIS - Naturalization Interview 

10. Passing and Failing

Determining a Passing Score

The U.S. Citizenship Test has defined passing scores for each component. To pass the English language test, applicants must demonstrate a basic proficiency in speaking, reading, and writing. For the reading and writing sections, applicants need to correctly answer at least one out of three sentences. For the civics test, applicants must answer correctly six out of ten questions.

“To pass the 2020 version of the civics test, applicants must answer at least 12 questions correctly.” - U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)

Retaking the Test After Failing

If an applicant fails any part of the test (English or civics), they will be given another opportunity to take the test. This re-examination usually occurs within 60-90 days of the initial test date.

“If you fail any portion of the test during your first interview, you will be retested on the portion of the test that you failed (English or civics) with a USCIS officer within 60-90 days.” - USCIS

Next Steps After Passing

Once applicants pass both the English language and civics tests, they will receive an appointment for the naturalization ceremony, where they will take the Oath of Allegiance. This final step confirms their commitment to the United States and its values. After taking the oath, applicants officially become U.S. citizens and receive their Certificate of Naturalization.

11. Conclusion

Becoming a U.S. citizen carries substantial personal and civic benefits. Citizenship opens up opportunities for civic participation, increased rights, and access to various public resources. It also demonstrates a commitment to civic engagement and community involvement.

Gaining U.S. citizenship comes with responsibilities, such as participating in the democratic process, upholding shared values, and contributing positively to the nation. By taking the U.S. Citizenship Test, applicants prove their preparedness and dedication to becoming integral members of American society.


  1. USCIS - 2020 Version of the Civics Test 
  2. USCIS - Naturalization Test 
  3. USCIS - Taking the Oath of Allegiance 
  4. USCIS - Certificate of Naturalization