How to Apply for U.S. Citizenship: A Step-by-Step Guide

How to Apply for U.S. Citizenship: A Step-by-Step Guide

1. Introduction

The path to U.S. citizenship

Becoming a U.S. citizen is a significant milestone for many people, as it grants access to certain rights and privileges, including the right to vote and run for public office. The naturalization process requires patience, determination, and proper preparation. As former President John F. Kennedy once said,

Citizenship consists in the service of the country.” (source)

The importance of understanding the process

Understanding the complete naturalization process is crucial, as it helps to avoid common mistakes that may cause delays or denial of the application. In this article, we will cover the eligibility requirements as well as provide a detailed explanation of the application process. Knowledge is power, and possessing the right information will contribute to a successful citizenship application.

2. Eligibility Requirements

Before starting the application process, applicants must ensure they meet the eligibility requirements. Here’s a detailed explanation of the main criteria:

Age, residency, and time as a lawful permanent resident

To apply for U.S. citizenship, you must be at least 18 years old and have been a lawful permanent resident (green card holder) for at least five years, or three years if you’re married to a U.S. citizen. Continuous residency is crucial, and applicants must have resided in the United States for more than half of the required period. Check the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) website for more information: Continuous Residence and Physical Presence Requirements

Good moral character

Good moral character consists of adhering to generally accepted ethical and moral standards. Applicants must demonstrate good moral character by avoiding criminal activities, providing honest information, and paying taxes, among other actions. According to USCIS,

“An applicant for naturalization must show that he or she has been, and continues to be, a person of good moral character.” (source)

English language proficiency and civics knowledge

Applicants must demonstrate a basic understanding of the English language, including reading, writing, and speaking. Additionally, they must possess knowledge of U.S. history and government principles. Preparation for the English and civics tests is crucial for passing these exams. USCIS provides study materials and free resources on their website: Study Materials for the Civics Test

Attachment to the U.S. Constitution

One of the fundamental requirements for U.S. citizenship is having an attachment to the U.S. Constitution. Applicants must be willing to support and defend the Constitution and the laws of the United States. During the naturalization process, applicants will be required to take the Oath of Allegiance, wherein they will promise loyalty to the United States and the principles outlined in the Constitution.

3. The Naturalization Process: Step-by-Step

Preparing for the application process

Before beginning the application process, it’s essential to familiarize yourself with the steps involved and prepare for each stage of the journey. A thorough understanding of the naturalization process will help you avoid common mistakes and speed up the overall procedure. As Thomas Jefferson once said,

Knowledge is power, knowledge is safety, and knowledge is happiness.” (source)

A few essential steps to prepare for the application process include:

  • Self-assess your eligibility for U.S. citizenship, ensuring you meet all requirements
  • Educate yourself on the U.S. naturalization process
  • Research reputable sources and identify credible resources, including the official USCIS website

Gathering necessary documents and records

Keeping accurate and up-to-date records is critical in the naturalization process. When you begin your application, you will need to provide several essential documents, such as your green card, tax returns, and proof of residence. It is a good idea to gather these documents well in advance to avoid delays in the application process. Here is a detailed list of USCIS documents and records requirements.

4. Filling Out Form N-400

Tips for completing the application

Form N-400, the Application for Naturalization, is the primary document you will need to submit to the USCIS during the naturalization process. Filling out this form accurately and completely is crucial, as any errors or missing information may lead to delays, requests for additional evidence, or even denial of your application.

Here are a few essential tips for completing Form N-400:

  • Read the form instructions carefully to avoid mistakes
  • Provide consistent, honest, and accurate information – inconsistencies may lead to suspicion of fraud
  • Use black ink for handwritten answers or use a fillable version of the form online
  • Double-check your application for accuracy, and consider seeking help from a trusted friend or family member
  • Do not leave any sections blank – if a question does not apply to you, answer with “N/A” or “none”

Required supporting documentation

After completing Form N-400, you will need to gather and submit all the necessary supporting documents as proof of your eligibility. These documents may include:

  • Photocopies of your green card (front and back)
  • Marriage certificates/divorce decrees (if applicable)
  • Proof of residence for the required period
  • Tax returns and other financial documents

Always refer to the document checklist provided by USCIS to ensure you are submitting all the necessary documentation: N-400 Document Checklist

5. Submitting the Application

Fees and fee waiver availability

Once you have prepared your Form N-400 and gathered all necessary supporting documentation, you’ll need to pay the application fee. As of October 2021, the filing fee for Form N-400 is $640, plus an additional $85 biometrics fee, totaling $725. Here is the USCIS fee schedule to ensure you have the most up-to-date information.

In certain cases, you might be eligible for a fee waiver, which means you do not have to pay the naturalization application fee. To qualify for a fee waiver, you must meet specific income criteria or prove financial hardship. Details on eligibility and the process of applying for a fee waiver can be found here: USCIS Fee Waiver Information.

Sending the application to the appropriate USCIS office

Make sure to send your completed Form N-400 and supporting documents to the correct USCIS office. The mailing address depends on whether you are using U.S. Postal Services (USPS) or a non-USPS commercial service such as FedEx, UPS, or DHL. USCIS provides an up-to-date list of addresses on their website: Where to File Form N-400.

6. Biometrics Appointment

Fingerprinting and background checks

After submitting your completed Form N-400, you will receive an appointment notice for your biometrics appointment. This appointment is necessary to collect your fingerprints, photograph, and signature. USCIS then uses this information to conduct a thorough background check, ensuring your good moral character and compliance with national security requirements.

Preparing for and attending the appointment

To prepare for your biometrics appointment, follow these steps:

  1. Review your appointment notice (Form I-797C) to confirm the date, time, and location.
  2. Arrive on time and bring your appointment notice, a valid photo ID (passport, driver’s license, or state-issued ID card), and any other required documentation.
  3. Cooperate with USCIS staff during the fingerprinting, photograph, and signature collection process.

Upon completing your biometrics appointment, USCIS will continue processing your application and prepare for your naturalization interview. Following up on your application status is crucial; you can use the USCIS Case Status Online tool to check its progress.

7. The Naturalization Interview

What to expect at the interview

The naturalization interview is a critical part of the U.S. citizenship process, conducted by a USCIS officer who evaluates your eligibility for citizenship. During the interview, you will answer questions about your background, character, and naturalization application. The interviewer will also assess your fluency in English during your conversation. You can expect a professional, thorough, and respectful assessment by the USCIS officer.

Tips for a successful interview experience

Proper preparation can alleviate nervousness and prevent common mistakes during the naturalization interview. Here are some essential tips for ensuring a successful interview experience:

  • Thoroughly review your Form N-400 and supporting documents before the interview
  • Practice answering potential questions, either alone or with friends and family
  • Bring your appointment notice, identification, and any updated documents to the interview
  • Dress professionally and arrive early to your appointment
  • Be honest, consistent, and concise when answering questions
  • Stay calm and collected when responding to the officer’s inquiries

Possible interview outcomes

After the interview, the USCIS officer will determine the outcome of your naturalization application. There are three possible outcomes:

  1. Approved: If your interview is successful, the officer will recommend your application for approval, and you will receive a notice to take the Oath of Allegiance.
  2. Continued: If more information or documentation is needed or if you have not passed the English or civics tests, the USCIS officer may continue your case, requiring you to provide additional evidence or retake the necessary tests.
  3. Denied: If you cannot demonstrate eligibility based on your interview results or the required documentation, the officer may deny your application.

8. The English Test and Civics Exam

Preparing for and passing the tests

The naturalization process includes the English Test and Civics Exam, which assess your language proficiency, as well as your knowledge of U.S. history, government, and the Constitution. Thorough preparation is essential to passing these exams. The USCIS provides numerous resources to help applicants study, including flashcards, practice tests, and educational videos. Visit the USCIS Study Materials for the Civics Test page for these resources.

Exceptions and accommodations for elderly and disabled applicants

USCIS offers certain exceptions and accommodations to applicants who are elderly or living with disabilities. For instance, those who are 50 years or older and have lived in the U.S. for 20 years as a permanent resident, or those who are 55 years or older with a 15-year permanent residency, are exempt from the English language test but must still pass the civics test in their native language. You can find detailed information on the USCIS website about exceptions and accommodations.

9. Approval and Oath Ceremony

Receiving a decision from USCIS

After a successful naturalization interview and passing the English and civics tests, the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will review your full application to make a final decision on your eligibility for U.S. citizenship. You will receive a written notice from USCIS, known as a “Notice of Naturalization Oath Ceremony” (Form N-445), that will inform you whether your application was approved, continued, or denied. If approved, this notice will include the date, time, and location of your upcoming Oath of Allegiance ceremony.

Participating in the Oath of Allegiance ceremony

The Oath of Allegiance ceremony is a meaningful and celebratory event that marks the final step in becoming a U.S. citizen. During the ceremony, applicants pledge their loyalty and commitment to the United States and its Constitution by reciting the Oath of Allegiance. As former President Theodore Roosevelt stated,

Every immigrant who comes here should be required within five years to learn English or leave the country.” (source).

In addition to taking the oath, attendees will typically receive important information for new citizens, watch a video message from the U.S. President, and may participate in the Pledge of Allegiance or sing the national anthem.

Receiving your Certificate of Naturalization

Once you have taken the Oath of Allegiance, you will receive your Certificate of Naturalization, which serves as proof of your U.S. citizenship. It is essential to carefully review your Certificate of Naturalization for errors immediately, as you will have a limited time to correct any discrepancies. Store this important document in a safe and secure location.

10. Post-Naturalization Matters

Updating your Social Security records

After becoming a U.S. citizen, it is essential to update your Social Security records with your new citizenship status. Visit a local Social Security Administration (SSA) office with your certificate of naturalization to complete this process. Updating your Social Security records helps ensure accurate access to benefits and future Social Security services.

Applying for a U.S. passport

As a new U.S. citizen, you are now eligible to apply for a U.S. passport, which serves as proof of citizenship and is necessary for international travel. To apply for a U.S. passport, you need to submit an application form (DS-11) and provide your Certificate of Naturalization, a passport photo, and appropriate payment. Visit the U.S. Department of State website for further information and complete instructions.

Registering to vote

Gaining the right to vote is one of the significant advantages of becoming a U.S. citizen. To exercise this right, new citizens must register to vote in their state of residence. Voter registration instructions vary by state, so visit your state’s official election office website or the U.S. government’s voting website for more information on how to register to vote. Once registered, you can participate in local, state, and federal elections, ensuring your voice is heard in the democratic process.

11. Conclusion

Emphasizing the importance of patience and perseverance

The journey to U.S. citizenship may seem long and challenging, but with patience and perseverance, you can successfully complete the process. As American poet, philosopher, and essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson once said, “Patience and fortitude conquer all things.” (source) Keep yourself informed, stay organized, and consistently follow the guidelines provided by USCIS. Doing so will ultimately help you reach your goal of becoming a U.S. citizen.

Celebrating the achievement of U.S. citizenship

Once you have completed the naturalization process and taken the Oath of Allegiance, you can officially celebrate becoming a U.S. citizen! This significant achievement demonstrates your dedication, effort, and commitment to the U.S. Constitution and the principles that have shaped the country. As a U.S. citizen, not only will you have access to the rights and privileges that come with citizenship, but you’ll also have the opportunity to contribute to the United States’ diverse and thriving society by participating in civic life, voting in elections, and even running for public office.


Ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country,” as famously stated by President John F. Kennedy (source).

Don’t underestimate the value you bring as a U.S. citizen, and take pride in your efforts to achieve this significant milestone.